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Everything You Need to Ace Organic Chemistry!

Chad makes Organic Chemistry understandable. Instead of merely memorizing reactions you'll actually understand the foundation of chemical reactivity, and Organic Chemistry will simply begin to make sense.

  • 244 Bite-Size Video Lessons

  • More than 60 Quizzes and 3 Practice Final Exams (Over 750 Questions)

  • 200 Video Solutions (and counting)

  • A Comprehensive 169-page Set of Outlines

  • A 21-page Summary of Organic Reactions

  • In-Lesson Discussions

Instructor

Chad McAllister

Chad McAllister

I have been helping science and pre-health students excel for more than two decades. I have spent most of the last 15 years managing the tutoring facility for the Chemistry department at one of the largest universities in the country and continue to work there to this day. I help thousands of students in person in large groups, in small groups, and one-on-one every semester and this site is my attempt to help far more. Chemistry and Physics are not as difficult as you think...I promise! Try one of my FREE or premium courses today! Happy Studying!

What Students Are Saying!

WISH he was my undergrad ORGO Professor

Chyna Chung

Learned so much material from this course. Explanations are right to the point and the quizzes really bring things together. Simple and sweet, yet beautifull...

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Learned so much material from this course. Explanations are right to the point and the quizzes really bring things together. Simple and sweet, yet beautifully detailed. Thanks Chad!!

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USE CHAD TO GET AN A+

Husban Shahid

Hey guys, so I found out about chad a few years ago when i was in high school and trying to get ahead. I used his videos for him to explain concepts and prob...

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Hey guys, so I found out about chad a few years ago when i was in high school and trying to get ahead. I used his videos for him to explain concepts and problems i could never understand in class. Now I am currently taking Organic chemistry and I havent been to class in over a month or two and only watch Chads videos and i still get almost perfect scores on the test. Chad is great. USE his videos and take notes.

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Awesome

Maddie Clark

First time I took organic chemistry I got a 58 on the first test. Now using this the second time around I got a 90. Suggested this to my teacher to recommend...

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First time I took organic chemistry I got a 58 on the first test. Now using this the second time around I got a 90. Suggested this to my teacher to recommend if students are having trouble.

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GREAT! 10/10! Would recommend!

lauren davis

By far the best resource that I've come across.

By far the best resource that I've come across.

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VERY INFORMATIVE AND STRAIGHTFORWARD

Uyen Ha

I couldn't ask for a better study resource for general and organic chemistry. Believe me I took these two courses with the best professor at my university an...

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I couldn't ask for a better study resource for general and organic chemistry. Believe me I took these two courses with the best professor at my university and I got straight A+ in both courses. Chad's videos are very clear, straightforward, and informative. His lectures are professional but super easy to follow and understand along with the help from the chat forum. However if you want a quick respond from him, I suggest you to send him an email. He would try his best to help you fully understand the materials. I highly recommend you buy a subscription, which is super cheap comparing to other resources, to help you practice after each videos. I find it very helpful.

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Chad is awesome

Vuong Le

Chad is awesome x10000000

Chad is awesome x10000000

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I wish I would known about this in Ochem 1

Gerardo Alanis Enhorabuena

I'm in the second part of Ochem this semester and these videos and reviews have helped me to fully understand and reinforce what I have learned in lecture wi...

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I'm in the second part of Ochem this semester and these videos and reviews have helped me to fully understand and reinforce what I have learned in lecture with my professor. I wish I would have known about this resource when I was in Ochem 1, I would have got a much better grade and would have actually understood the material. Thank you for all your help.

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Amazing

Onalee Sortino

I learned more from watching Chad's videos and doing his review quizzes than I ever have from other review sites/ books. He explains things in such a way tha...

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I learned more from watching Chad's videos and doing his review quizzes than I ever have from other review sites/ books. He explains things in such a way that they just "click."

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Chad is saving my chem courses!

tabby Shirbani

I just want to say thank you, because this course is the only thing that I needed for my ochem course!

I just want to say thank you, because this course is the only thing that I needed for my ochem course!

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LIFE SAVER

paige willett

i have my first orgo test in a few days and i would be so lost if it weren't for these videos. i had no clue how to do chair flips and Newman projections unt...

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i have my first orgo test in a few days and i would be so lost if it weren't for these videos. i had no clue how to do chair flips and Newman projections until i watched these videos

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Organic Chem with Chad

Sydney Finster

One of the best (if not the best) professors I have learned from. Highly recommend this course to learn and actually understand the material. If that doesn't...

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One of the best (if not the best) professors I have learned from. Highly recommend this course to learn and actually understand the material. If that doesn't convince you then sign up just to see his t-shirts! :p

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An Answer to Prayer

Katherine Saaid

This course has been a phenomenal help! The way you explain the concepts makes them easy to understand and remember because your goal is understanding. The ...

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This course has been a phenomenal help! The way you explain the concepts makes them easy to understand and remember because your goal is understanding. The many examples throughout the lecture helps solidify the concepts, as do the practice questions. Although Organic Chem is a subject that tends to fly over my head (and at least a few others), you do well in not making it complicated, but rather simplify it and ease students in understanding this foreign language. In terms of function and aesthetics, the website is great! Une grande aide! Much thanks!

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Course curriculum

  • 1

    Intro, Outlines, and Handouts

    • Chads Ultimate Organic Chemistry Review Complete Outlines 2018
    • A Note Regarding the New Revised Course
    • Getting the Most Out of the Course
    • ORGANIC CHEMISTRY COMPLETE SUMMARY OF REACTIONS 2019
  • 2

    Chapter 1 - Electrons, Bonding, and Molecular Properties

    • Chapter 1 Outlines
    • Chapter 1 Slides
    • 1.1 Lewis Structures (11:04)
    • 1.2 Formal Charges (4:09)
    • 1.3 Valence Bond Theory and Hybridization (17:29)
    • Molecular Structure and Bonding (14 Questions)
    • 1.4 Molecular Orbital Theory (14:14)
    • 1.5 Polarity (6:38)
    • 1.6 Intermolecular Forces (20:16)
    • Intermolecular Forces (13 Questions)
  • 3

    Chapter 2 - Molecular Representations and Resonance

    • Chapter 2 Outlines
    • Chapter 2 Slides
    • 2.1 Condensed Structures (11:36)
    • 2.2 Bond-Line Structures (15:25)
    • 2.3a Resonance (17:40)
    • 2.3b Resonance and Hybridization (5:33)
    • Resonance (10 Questions)
  • 4

    Chapter 3 - Acids and Bases

    • Chapter 3 Outlines
    • Chapter 3 Slides
    • 3.1 Introduction to Acids and Bases (9:01)
    • 3.2 Ranking Bases (14:51)
    • 3.3 Ranking Acids (8:28)
    • Acids and Bases (17 Questions)
    • Acids and Bases Quiz Extra Practice (15 Questions)
  • 5

    Chapter 4 - Alkanes

    • Chapter 4 Outlines
    • Chapter 4 Part 1 Slides - Nomenclature of Alkanes
    • Chapter 4 Part 2 Slides - Constitutional Isomers and Conformations of Alkanes
    • 4.1a Nomenclature of Alkanes (15:32)
    • 4.1b Nomenclature of CycloAlkanes (8:20)
    • 4.1c Systematic Nomenclature of Complex Substituents (4:22)
    • 4.1d Common Names of Complex Substituents (7:52)
    • Nomenclature (12 Questions)
    • 4.1e Nomenclature of Bicyclic Compounds (5:44)
    • 4.2 Drawing Constitutional Isomers (6:18)
    • 4.3 Newman Projections (8:20)
    • 4.4 Cycloalkanes and Cyclohexane Chair Conformations (22:38)
    • Conformations of Alkanes (12 Questions)
  • 6

    Chapter 5 - Isomers and Stereochemistry

    • Chapter 5 Outlines
    • Chapter 5 Slides
    • 5.1 Overview of Isomerism (7:23)
    • 5.2 Chiral Centers and Chirality (5:22)
    • 5.3 Absolute Configurations - Assigning R and S (14:46)
    • Absolute Configurations (4 Questions)
    • 5.4 Molecules with Multiple Chiral Centers (15:15)
    • Introduction to Isomers and Stereochemistry (6 Questions)
    • 5.5 Fischer Projections (6:13)
    • 5.6 Determining the Relationship Between a Pair of Molecules (6:43)
    • Isomeric Relationships Between Molecules (12 Questions)
    • 5.7 Amine Inversion and Chiral Molecules Without Chiral Centers (5:23)
    • 5.8 Optical Activity (7:39)
  • 7

    Chapter 6 - Introduction to Organic Reactions and Mechanisms

    • Chapter 6 Outlines
    • Chapter 6 Slides
    • 6.1 Reaction Enthalpies and Bond Dissociation Energies (6:11)
    • 6.2 Entropy, Gibbs Free Energy, and the Equilibrium Constant (9:43)
    • 6.3 The Kinetics of Organic Reactions (4:41)
    • 6.4 Nucleophiles, Electrophiles, and Intermediates (5:43)
    • 6.5 Reaction Mechanisms and Curved Arrow Pushing (7:11)
  • 8

    Chapter 7 - Substitution and Elimination Reactions of Alkyl Halides

    • Chapter 7 Outlines
    • Chapter 7 Part 1 Slides
    • Chapter 7 Part 2 Slides
    • 7.1a Introduction to SN2 Reactions (9:14)
    • 7.1b Factors Affecting SN2 Reactions (11:39)
    • 7.2a Introduction to SN1 Reactions (4:44)
    • 7.2b Carbocation Rearrangements in SN1 Reactions (8:29)
    • 7.2c Racemization in SN1 Reactions (1:36)
    • 7.2d Factors Affecting SN1 Reactions (4:50)
    • 7.3 Unreactivity of Vinyl and Aryl Halides (2:08)
    • 7.4 Predicting the Products of Substitution Reactions (18:04)
    • Substitution Reactions (18 Questions)
    • 7.5 Nomenclature of Alkenes (15:17)
    • Nomenclature of Alkenes (3 Questions)
    • 7.6 Stability of Alkenes (2:17)
    • 7.7a Introduction to E2 Elimination Reactions (6:41)
    • 7.7b Exceptions to Zaitsev's Rule for E2 Reactions (8:37)
    • 7.7c The Stereospecificity of E2 Reactions -- Anti-periplanar (10:40)
    • 7.8 Introduction to E1 Elimination Reactions (4:54)
    • 7.9 Predicting the Products of Elimination Reactions (10:01)
    • 7.10 Distinguishing Between Substitution and Elimination Reactions (16:52)
    • Elimination Reactions (9 Questions)
    • Distinguishing Between Substitution and Elimination Reactions (6 Questions)
  • 9

    Chapter 8 - Addition Reactions to Alkenes

    • Chapter 8 Outlines
    • Chapter 8 Slides
    • 8.1 Introduction to Alkene Addition Reactions (3:59)
    • 8.2 Hydrohalogenation (5:06)
    • Hydrohalogenation (4 Questions)
    • 8.3a Hydration -- Acid-Catalyzed Hydration (3:24)
    • 8.3b Hydration -- Oxymercuration-Demercuration (6:06)
    • 8.3c Hydration -- Hydroboration-Oxidation (4:13)
    • Hydration of Alkenes (6 Questions)
    • 8.4a Acid-Catalyzed Addition of an Alcohol (2:24)
    • 8.4b Alkoxymercuration-Demercuration (1:14)
    • Addition of Alcohols (3 Questions)
    • 8.5 Catalytic Hydrogenation (3:16)
    • Catalytic Hydrogenation (2 Questions)
    • 8.6a Halogenation (3:54)
    • 8.6b Halohydrin Formation (3:19)
    • Addition of Br2 and Cl2 (7 Questions)
    • 8.7a Anti-Dihydroxylation (4:11)
    • 8.7b Syn-Dihydroxylation (2:39)
    • Epoxidation and Dihydroxylation (5 Questions)
    • 8.8 Predicting the Products of Alkene Addition Reactions (10:17)
    • 8.9 Oxidative Cleavage -- Ozonolysis and Permanganate Cleavage (4:48)
    • Oxidative Cleavage (4 Questions)
    • Alkenes Quiz Extra Practice (20 Questions)
  • 10

    Chapter 9 - Alkynes

    • Chapter 9 Outlines
    • Chapter 9 Slides
    • 9.1 Nomenclature of Alkynes (3:47)
    • Nomenclature of Alkynes (2 Questions)
    • 9.2 Acidity of Alkynes (2:31)
    • Acidity of Alkynes (2 Questions)
    • 9.3 Preparation of Alkynes (2:57)
    • 9.4 Reduction of Alkynes (6:00)
    • Reduction of Alkynes (5 Questions)
    • 9.5 Introduction to Addition Reactions of Alkynes (2:18)
    • 9.6 Hydrohalogenation (3:16)
    • Hydrohalogenation (5 Questions)
    • 9.7 Halogenation (1:34)
    • Halogenation (2 Questions)
    • 9.8a Acid-Catalyzed Hydration (4:09)
    • 9.8b Hydroboration-Oxidation (5:06)
    • 9.8c Keto-Enol Tautomerization (3:57)
    • Hydration of Alkynes (3 Questions)
    • 9.9 Ozonolysis (1:20)
    • 9.10 Alkylation of Acetylide Ions (2:20)
    • Alkylation of Acetylide Ions (4 Questions)
    • Alkynes Quiz Extra Practice (8 Questions)
  • 11

    Chapter 10 - Radical Reactions

    • Chapter 10 Outlines
    • Chapter 10 Slides
    • 10.1 Introduction to Free Radical Halogenation (4:01)
    • 10.2 Free Radical Chlorination vs Bromination (5:51)
    • 10.3 The Mechanism of Free Radical Halogenation (7:51)
    • 10.4 Allylic and Benzylic Bromination Using NBS (7:13)
    • 10.5 Hydrobromination of Alkenes with Peroxide (4:22)
    • Radical Reactions (9 Questions)
    • Radical Reactions Extra Practice (7 Questions)
  • 12

    Chapter 11 - Synthesis

    • Chapter 11 Outlines
    • Chapter 11 Slides
    • 11.1 Functional Group Conversions (4:18)
    • 11.2 Increasing the Length of the Carbon Skeleton (8:06)
    • 11.3 Decreasing the Length of the Carbon Chain or Opening a Ring (2:42)
    • 11.4a Common Patterns in Synthesis Part 1 (5:24)
    • 11.4b Common Patterns in Synthesis Part 2 (8:50)
    • 11.4c Common Patterns in Synthesis Part 3 (5:20)
    • 11.4d Common Patterns in Synthesis Part 4 (9:45)
  • 13

    Chapter 12 - Alcohols

    • Chapter 12 Outlines
    • Chapter 12 Slides
    • 12.1 Properties and Nomenclature of Alcohols (4:46)
    • Nomenclature of Alcohols (2 Questions)
    • 12.2 Acidity of Alcohols and Phenols (13:07)
    • 12.3a Synthesis of Alcohols; Reduction of Ketones and Aldehydes (8:05)
    • 12.3b Synthesis of Alcohols; Grignard Addition (8:18)
    • 12.4 Protecting Alcohols (5:44)
    • 12.5a Substitution with HCl, HBr, and HI (4:22)
    • 12.5b Substitution with PBr3 and SOCl2 (5:04)
    • 12.5c Formation of Tosylate Esters (3:36)
    • 12.6 Elimination (Dehydration) (3:14)
    • Substitution and Elimination Reactions of Alcohols (10 Questions)
    • 12.7 Oxidation with Chromic Acid and PCC (9:25)
    • Oxidation of Alcohols (7 Questions)
    • Alcohols Extra Practice (7 Questions)
    • 12.8 Patterns in Synthesis (9:00)
  • 14

    Chapter 13 - Ethers, Epoxides, Thiols, and Sulfides

    • Chapter 13 Outlines
    • Chapter 13 Slides
    • 13.1 Introduction to and Nomenclature of Ethers (2:42)
    • 13.2 Crown Ethers (2:02)
    • 13.3 Synthesis and Reactions of Ethers (6:34)
    • Williamson Ether Synthesis (2 Questions)
    • Acidic Cleavage of Ethers (4 Questions)
    • 13.4 Nomenclature of Epoxides (2:59)
    • Nomenclature of Ethers and Epoxides (2 Questions)
    • 13.5 Synthesis of Epoxides (4:09)
    • Ethers and Epoxides Quiz Extra Practice (5 Questions)
    • 13.6 Ring Opening of Epoxides (4:49)
    • Ring-Opening of Epoxides (4 Questions)
    • 13.7 Nomenclature, Synthesis, and Reactions of Thiols (4:37)
    • 13.8 Nomenclature, Synthesis, and Reactions of Sulfides (2:51)
    • 13.9 Patterns in Synthesis (8:38)
  • 15

    Chapter 14 - IR Spectroscopy and Mass Spectrometry

    • Chapter 14 Outlines
    • Chapter 14 Part 1 Slides - IR Spectroscopy
    • Chapter 14 Part 2 Slides - Mass Spectrometry
    • 14.1 Introduction to IR Spectroscopy (10:56)
    • 14.2a IR Spectra of Carbonyl Compounds (6:27)
    • 14.2b The Effect of Conjugation on the Carbonyl Stretching Frequency (5:57)
    • 14.3 Interpreting More IR Spectra (6:45)
    • IR Spectroscopy (15 Questions)
    • 14.4 Introduction to Mass Spectrometry (6:19)
    • 14.5 Isotope Effects in Mass Spectrometry (6:29)
    • 14.6a Fragmentation Patterns of Alkanes, Alkenes, and Aromatic Compounds (6:19)
    • 14.6b Fragmentation Patterns for Alkyl Halides, Alcohols, and Amines (4:56)
    • 14.6c Fragmentation Patterns for Ketones and Aldehydes (3:45)
  • 16

    Chapter 15 - NMR Spectroscopy

    • Chapter 15 Outlines
    • Chapter 15 Part 1 Slides -- The Number of Signals
    • Chapter 15 Part 1 Slides -- Interpreting NMR
    • 15.1 Introduction to NMR (2:45)
    • 15.2 The Number of Signals in C-13 NMR (4:52)
    • 15.3 The Number of Signals in Proton NMR (10:37)
    • 15.4 Homotopic vs Enantiotopic vs Diastereotopic (10:15)
    • 15.5a The Chemical Shift in C-13 and Proton NMR (8:40)
    • 15.5b The Integration or Area Under the Signal in Proton NMR (1:46)
    • 15.5c The Splitting or Multiplicity in Proton NMR (4:55)
    • 15.6a Interpreting NMR Example 1 (5:10)
    • 15.6b Interpreting NMR Example 2 (7:43)
    • 15.6c Interpreting NMR Example 3 (3:53)
    • 15.6d Structural Determination From All Spectra Example 4 (5:58)
    • 15.6e Structural Determination From All Spectra Example 5 (8:47)
    • 15.7 Complex Splitting (11:42)
    • NMR Spectroscopy (25 Questions)
  • 17

    Chapter 16 - Conjugated Pi Systems

    • Chapter 16 Outlines
    • Chapter 16 Slides Part 1 - Conjugated Pi Systems
    • Chapter 16 Slides Part 2 - Pericyclic Reactions
    • 16.1 Introduction to Conjugated Systems and Heats of Hydrogenation (8:19)
    • 16.2a Introduction to Pi Molecular Orbitals - Ethylene (6:57)
    • 16.2b Pi Molecular Orbitals - 1,3-Butadiene (6:17)
    • 16.2c Pi Molecular Orbitals - the Allyl System (5:14)
    • 16.2d Pi Molecular Orbitals - 1,3,5-Hexatriene (5:30)
    • 16.3 UV-Vis Spectroscopy (1:50)
    • 16.4 Addition Reactions to Conjugated Dienes (10:50)
    • 16.5a Introduction to Diels-Alder Reactions (7:42)
    • 16.5b Stereoselectivity and Regioselectivity in Diels-Alder Reactions (11:58)
    • 16.5c Diels-Alder Reactions with Cyclic Dienes (10:03)
    • 16.5d Conservation of Orbital Symmetry in Diels-Alder Reactions (3:40)
    • Diels-Alder Reactions (6 Questions)
    • 16.6 Cycloaddition Reactions (9:38)
    • 16.7 Electrocyclic Reactions (14:19)
    • 16.8 Sigmatropic Rearrangements (6:14)
  • 18

    Chapter 17 - Aromatic Compounds

    • Chapter 17 Outlines
    • Chapter 17 - Slides
    • 17.1 Nomenclature of Benzenes (9:48)
    • 17.2a Criteria for Aromatic Compounds (5:02)
    • 17.2b Aromatic vs Nonaromatic vs Antiaromatic (15:56)
    • Aromaticity (8 Questions)
    • 17.3 The Effects of Aromaticity on SN1 Reactions and Acidity-Basicity (4:00)
    • Aromaticity Quiz Extra Practice (16 Questions)
    • 17.4 Aromaticity and Molecular Orbital Theory (8:23)
  • 19

    Chapter 18 - Reactions of Aromatic Compounds

    • Chapter 18 Outlines
    • Chapter 18 Slides
    • 18.1 Introduction to Aromatic Substitution Reactions (6:27)
    • 18.2a EAS - Bromination and Chlorination (4:37)
    • 18.2b EAS - Sulfonation and Desulfonation (2:25)
    • 18.2c EAS - Nitration (2:56)
    • 18.2d EAS - Friedel-Crafts Alkylation and Acylation (10:35)
    • 18.2e EAS - Activating and Deactivating Groups and Ortho-Para and Meta Directors (12:07)
    • 18.2f EAS - Predicting the Products of EAS Reactions (5:17)
    • EAS Reactions (24 Questions)
    • 18.3 Catalytic Hydrogenation and the Birch Reduction (2:12)
    • 18.4a Side-Chain Oxidation with Permanganate or Chromic Acid (1:35)
    • 18.4b Benzylic Bromination with NBS (1:15)
    • 18.4c The Clemmensen and Wolff Kishner Reductions (5:12)
    • 18.4d - Side-Chain General Reduction (1:26)
    • Benzene Side-Chain Reactions (8 Questions)
    • 18.5 Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution (6:40)
    • Reactions of Aromatic Compounds Quiz Extra Practice (11 Questions)
    • 18.6 Patterns in Synthesis (14:18)
  • 20

    Chapter 19 - Ketones and Aldehydes

    • Chapter 19 Outlines
    • Chapter 19 Slides
    • 19.1 Nomenclature of Ketones and Aldehydes (5:33)
    • Nomenclature of Ketones and Aldehydes (5 Questions)
    • 19.2 Synthesis of Ketones and Aldehydes (3:15)
    • 19.3 Introduction to Nucleophilic Addition Reactions (6:37)
    • 19.4 Hydration (Addition of Water) (3:06)
    • 19.5a Addition of Alcohols (7:16)
    • Nucleophilic Addition of Water and Alcohols (6 Questions)
    • 19.5b Cyclic Acetals as Protecting Groups (4:25)
    • 19.6a Addition of Primary Amines (Imine Formation) (6:19)
    • 19.6b Addition of Secondary Amines (Enamine Formation) (4:31)
    • Nucleophilic Addition of Amines (5 Questions)
    • 19.6c Mechanism for the Wolff Kishner Reduction (4:45)
    • 19.7 Reduction via Thioacetals (1:16)
    • 19.8 Hydride Reduction Reactions (2:42)
    • 19.9a Addition of Acetylide Ions and Grignard Reagents (1:09)
    • Nucleophilic Addition of Grignard Reagents and Acetylide Ions (10 Questions)
    • 19.9b Addition of HCN (Cyanohydrin Formation) (1:01)
    • 19.9c The Wittig Reaction (5:18)
    • The Wittig Reaction (2 Questions)
    • Aldehydes and Ketones Quiz Extra Practice (12 Questions)
    • 19.10 Baeyer-Villiger Oxidation (2:51)
    • 19.11 Patterns in Synthesis (12:32)
  • 21

    Chapter 20 - Carboxylic Acids and Acid Derivatives

    • Chapter 20 Outlines
    • Chapter 20 Slides
    • 20.1 Introduction to and Physical Properties of Carboyxylic Acids and Acid Derivatives (3:46)
    • 20.2a Nomenclature of Carboxylic Acids (2:25)
    • 20.2b Nomenclature of Acid Halides (0:50)
    • 20.2c Nomenclature of Acid Anhydrides (1:20)
    • 20.2d Nomenclature of Esters (1:45)
    • 20.2e Nomenclature of Amides (1:04)
    • 20.2f Nomenclature of Nitriles (0:43)
    • Nomenclature of Carboxylic Acids and Derivatives (13 Questions)
    • 20.3 Introduction to Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution (4:08)
    • 20.4 Reaction with Organometallic Reagents (3:27)
    • 20.5 Hydride Reduction (9:45)
    • Reduction Reactions of Carbonyl Compounds (12 Questions)
    • 20.6 Interconversion of Carboxylic Acids and Derivatives (6:58)
    • 20.7 The Mechanisms of Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution (7:51)
    • 20.8a Synthesis of Acid Halides (3:33)
    • 20.8b Reactions of Acid Halides (3:24)
    • 20.9 Synthesis and Reactions of Acid Anhydrides (2:41)
    • 20.10a Synthesis of Esters (6:00)
    • 20.10b Reactions of Esters (5:06)
    • 20.11 Synthesis and Reactions of Carboxylic Acids (5:51)
    • 20.12 Synthesis and Reactions of Amides (1:53)
    • 20.13 Synthesis and Reactions of Nitriles (3:31)
    • Reactions of Carboxylic Acids and Acid Derivatives (13 Questions)
    • Carboxylic Acids and Acid Derivatives Quiz Extra Practice (10 Questions)
    • 20.14 Patterns in Synthesis (9:16)
  • 22

    Chapter 21 - Substitution Reactions at the Alpha Carbon

    • Chapter 21 Outlines
    • Chapter 21 Slides
    • 21.1 Acidity of the Alpha Hydrogen
    • Acidity of the Alpha Hydrogen (3 Questions)
    • 21.2 General Mechanisms of Alpha Substitution Reactions
    • 21.3a Alpha Halogenation
    • 21.3b The Haloform Reaction
    • 21.3c The HVZ Reaction
    • Alpha Halogenation (3 Questions)
    • 21.4a Alpha Alkylation
    • 21.4b The Stork Synthesis
    • Alpha Alkylation (2 Questions)
    • 21.5a Introduction to Aldol Reactions
    • 21.5b Mechanisms of Aldol Reactions
    • 21.5c Mixed Aldol Reactions
    • 21.5d Intramolecular Aldol Reactions
    • Aldol Reactions (4 Questions)
    • 21.6a Claisen Condensation Reactions
    • 21.6b Dieckmann Condensation Reactions
    • Claisen Condensations (3 Questions)
    • 21.7a Beta-Decarboxylation
    • Alpha Substitution Quiz Extra Practice (10 Questions)
    • 21.7b The Malonic Ester Synthesis
    • 21.7c The Acetoacetic Ester Synthesis
    • Malonic Ester and Acetoacetic Ester Syntheses (4 Questions)
    • 21.8 Michael Reactions
    • Michael Reactions (1 Question)
    • 21.9 The Robinson Annulation
    • 21.10 Patterns in Synthesis
  • 23

    Chapter 22 - Amines

    • Chapter 22 Outlines
    • Chapter 22 Slides
    • 22.1 Classification of Amines (2:15)
    • 22.2 Nomenclature of Amines (4:15)
    • 22.3 Basicity of Amines (2:18)
    • 22.4a Synthesis of Amines - Reduction (1:56)
    • 22.4b Synthesis of Amines - Hofmann Rearrangement (3:07)
    • 22.4c Synthesis of Amines - Curtius Rearrangement and Schmidt Reaction (2:07)
    • 22.4d Synthesis of Amines - Gabriel Synthesis (4:08)
    • 22.4e Synthesis of Amines - Reductive Amination (1:50)
    • 22.5 Acylation (0:58)
    • 22.6 Hofmann Elimination (3:59)
    • 22.7 Cope Elimination (1:04)
    • 22.8a Reaction with Nitrous Acid and the Sandmeyer Reactions (1:59)
    • 22.8b Azo Coupling (1:17)
    • 22.9 EAS Reactions with Nitrogen Heterocycles (2:18)
    • 22.10 Patterns in Synthesis (9:57)
    • Amines Quiz Extra Practice (5 Questions)
  • 24

    Practice Final Exams

    • Nomenclature Review Quiz (18 Questions)
    • Practice Final Exam #1 (50 Questions)
    • Practice Final Exam #2 (50 Questions)
    • Practice Final Exam #3 (50 Questions)
  • 25

    Outlines (Previous Version--Being phased out)

    • Organic Chemistry 1 and 2 Complete Outlines
  • 26

    Chapter 1 - Molecular Structure and Bonding (Previous Version--Being phased out)

    • 1.1 Molecular Structure and Bonding (20:39)
    • Molecular Structure and Bonding Quiz (14 Questions)
    • 1.2 Resonance (16:28)
    • Resonance Quiz (10 Questions)
    • Molecular Structure and Bonding Quiz Extra Practice (13 Questions)
    • Resonance Quiz Extra Practice (6 Questions)
  • 27

    Chapter 2 - Acids and Bases (Previous Version--Being phased out)

    • 2 Acids and Bases (32:00)
    • Acids and Bases Quiz (17 Questions)
    • Acids and Bases Quiz Extra Practice (15 Questions)
  • 28

    Chapter 3 - Nomenclature (Previous Version--Being phased out)

    • 3 Nomenclature (38:23)
    • Nomenclature Quiz (12 Questions)
  • 29

    Chapter 4 - Alkanes (Previous Version--Being phased out)

    • 4.1 Intermolecular Forces (18:39)
    • Intermolecular Forces Quiz (13 Questions)
    • 4.2 Newman Projections (10:56)
    • 4.3 Cycloalkanes and Conformations of Cyclohexane (17:26)
    • Conformations of Alkanes Quiz (12 Questions)
    • Conformations of Alkanes Quiz Extra Practice (11 Questions)
    • Intermolecular Forces Quiz Extra Practice (6 Questions)
  • 30

    Chapter 5 - Isomers and Stereochemistry (Previous Version--Being phased out)

    • 5.1 Introduction to Isomers (14:37)
    • 5.2 Relative and Absolute Configurations of Chiral Centers (20:44)
    • Absolute Configurations Quiz (4 Questions)
    • 5.3 Diastereomers and Meso Compounds (24:06)
    • Introduction to Isomers and Stereochemistry Quiz (6 Questions)
    • Isomeric Relationships Between Molecules Quiz (12 Questions)
    • 5.4 Atypical Examples in Stereochemistry (12:55)
    • Isomers and Stereochemistry Quiz Extra Practice (17 Questions)
    • A Little Help
  • 31

    Chapter 6 - Introduction to Organic Reactions (Previous Version--Being phased out)

    • 6 Introduction to Organic Reactions (14:10)
  • 32

    Chapter 7 - Alkenes (Previous Version--Being phased out)

    • 7.1 Nomenclature of Alkenes (6:05)
    • Nomenclature of Alkenes Quiz (3 Questions)
    • 7.2 Introduction to Electrophilic Addition (16:07)
    • 7.3 Addition of HBr, HCl, and HI (10:53)
    • Addition of HBr, HCl, and HI Quiz (4 Questions)
    • 7.4 Acid-Catalyzed Addition of Water and Alcohols (15:36)
    • Acid-Catalyzed Addition of Water and Alcohols Quiz (4 Questions)
    • 7.5 Additon of Br2 (and Cl2) (13:48)
    • Addition of Br2 and Cl2 Quiz (7 Questions)
    • 7.6 Oxymercuration-Demercuration and Hydroboration-Oxidation (13:45)
    • Oxymercuration-Demercuration and Hydroboration-Oxidation Quiz (5 Questions)
    • 7.7 Catalytic Hydrogenation and Addition of HBr with Peroxide (10:38)
    • Catalytic Hydrogenation and Addition of HBr with Peroxide Quiz (5 questions)
    • 7.8 Epoxidation, Hydroxylation (Anti and Syn), and Addition of Carbenes (8:09)
    • Epoxidation and Dihydroxylation Quiz (5 Questions)
    • 7.9 Ozonolysis (4:21)
    • Oxidative Cleavage Quiz (4 Questions)
    • Alkenes Extra Practice (20 Questions)
  • 33

    Chapter 8 - Alkynes (Previous Version--Being phased out)

    • 8.1 Structure, Nomenclature, and Acidity of Alkynes (8:31)
    • Nomenclature and Acidity of Alkynes Quiz (2 Questions)
    • Acidity of Alkynes (2 Questions)
    • 8.2 Synthesis of Alkynes (11:36)
    • 8.3 Addition of H2, HBr, Br2, and H2O to Alkynes (14:39)
    • Reduction of Alkynes Quiz (5 Questions)
    • Addition of HBr, HCl, and HI to Alkynes Quiz (5 Questions)
    • Addition of Br2 and Cl2 to Alkynes Quiz (2 Questions)
    • Hydration of Alkynes Quiz (3 Questions)
    • 8.4 Nucleophilic Addition of Acetylide Ions (8:59)
    • Nucleophilic Addition of Acetylide Ions Quiz (4 Questions)
    • Alkynes Extra Practice (8 Questions)
  • 34

    Chapter 9 - Conjugated Systems (Previous Version--Being phased out)

    • 9.1 Addition Reactions to Conjugated Dienes (Thermodynamic vs Kinetic Products) (16:42)
    • 9.2 Pi Molecular Orbitals (35:06)
    • 9.3 Diels-Alder Reactions (31:48)
    • Diels-Alder Reactions Quiz (6 Questions)
  • 35

    Chapter 10 - Substitution Reactions (Reactions of Alkyl Halides Part 1) (Previous Version--Being phased out)

    • 10.1 SN1 and SN2 Reactions Part 1 (28:40)
    • 10.2 SN1 and SN2 Reactions Part 2 (26:00)
    • Substitution Reactions Quiz (18 Questions)
  • 36

    Chapter 11 - Elimination Reactions (Reactions of Alkyl Halides Part 2) (Previous Version--Being phased out)

    • 11.1 E1 and E2 Reactions (34:44)
    • Elimination Reactions Quiz (9 Questions)
    • 11.2 Distinguishing between SN1, SN2, E1, and E2 Reactions (13:00)
    • Distinguishing Between Substitution and Elimination Reactions Quiz (6 Questions)
    • Substitution and Elimination Extra Practice (14 Questions)
  • 37

    Chapter 12 - Radical Reactions (Previous Version--Being phased out)

    • 12.1 Free Radical Halogenation (23:23)
    • Free Radical Halogenation Quiz (9 Questions)
    • Free Radical Halogenation Extra Practice (7 Questions)
    • 12.2 Alkene Addition of HBr with Peroxide (6:29)
  • 38

    Chapter 13 - Mass Spectrometry (Previous Version--Being phased out)

    • 13.1 Fragmentation Patterns (36:41)
    • 13.2 Interpreting Mass Spectra (16:49)
  • 39

    Chapter 14 - IR Spectroscopy (Previous Version--Being phased out)

    • 14.1 Introduction to IR Spectroscopy (12:14)
    • 14.2 Interpreting IR Spectra (17:48)
    • IR Spectroscopy Quiz (16 Questions)
    • IR Spectroscopy Quiz Extra Practice (10 Questions)
  • 40

    Chapter 15 - NMR Spectroscopy (Previous Version--Being phased out)

    • 15.1 Introduction to NMR Spectroscopy (10:20)
    • 15.2 C13 NMR (12:17)
    • 15.3 The Number of Signals in Proton NMR (H NMR) (13:24)
    • 15.4 Integration and Multiplicity (Splitting) in Proton NMR (21:36)
    • 15.5 Interpreting NMR Spectra (17:12)
    • 15.6 Interpreting the Combination of All Spectra (14:27)
    • NMR Spectroscopy Quiz (25 Questions)
  • 41

    Chapter 16 - Alcohols, Ethers, and Epoxides (Previous Version--Being phased out)

    • 16.1 Nomenclature and Acidity of Alcohols (18:04)
    • Nomenclature of Alcohols Quiz (2 Questions)
    • 16.2 Substitution Reactions of Alcohols (16:45)
    • 16.3 Elimination (Dehydration) Reactions of Alcohols (9:59)
    • Substitution and Elimination Reactions of Alcohols Quiz (10 Questions)
    • 16.4 Oxidation of Alcohols (5:01)
    • Oxidation of Alcohols Quiz (7 Questions)
    • 16.5 Grignard Reagents (21:11)
    • 16.6 Retrosynthesis with Grignard Reagents and Acetylide Ions (23:16)
    • Alcohols Quiz Extra Practice (7 Questions)
    • 16.7 Nomenclature of Ethers and Epoxides (5:07)
    • Nomenclature of Ethers and Epoxides (2 Questions)
    • 16.8 Synthesis and Reactions of Ethers and Epoxides (20:06)
    • Williamson Ether Synthesis Quiz (2 Questions)
    • Acidic Cleavage of Ethers Quiz (4 Questions)
    • Ring-Opening of Epoxides Quiz (4 Questions)
    • Ethers and Epoxides Quiz Extra Practice (5 Questions)
  • 42

    Chapter 17 - Aromatic Compounds (Previous Version--Being phased out)

    • 17.1 Nomenclature of Aromatic Compounds (6:46)
    • 17.2 Aromaticity (27:57)
    • Aromaticity Quiz (8 Questions)
    • Aromaticity Quiz Extra Practice (16 Questions)
    • 17.3 Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution (EAS) Reactions (36:03)
    • 17.4 EAS Reactions of Substituted Benzenes (25:13)
    • EAS Reactions Quiz (24 Questions)
    • 17.5 Benzene Side Chain Reactions (11:50)
    • Benzene Side-Chain Reactions Quiz (8 Questions)
    • 17.6 Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution (NAS) Reactions (10:07)
    • 17.7 Reactions of Non-benzenoid Aromatics (20:39)
    • Aromatic Compounds Quiz Extra Practice (11 Questions)
  • 43

    Chapter 18 - Ketones and Aldehydes (Nucleophilic Addition) (Previous Version--Being phased out)

    • 18.1 Nomenclature and Synthesis of Ketones and Aldehydes (18:18)
    • Nomenclature of Ketones and Aldehydes Quiz (5 Questions)
    • 18.2 Reduction Reactions of Carbonyl Compounds (17:49)
    • Reduction Reactions of Carbonyl Compounds Quiz (12 Questions)
    • 18.3 Nucleophilic Addition of Acetylides and Grignard Reagents (10:08)
    • Nucleophilic Addition of Grignard Reagents and Acetylide Ions Quiz (10 Questions)
    • 18.4 Nucleophilic Addition of Amines (Formation of Imines and Enamines) (8:52)
    • Nucleophilic Addition of Amines Quiz (5 Questions)
    • 18.5 Nucleophilic Addition of Water and Alcohols (Formation of Hydrates and Acetals-Ketals) (13:33)
    • Nucleophilic Addition of Water and Alcohols (6 Questions)
    • 18.6 Addition to Conjugated Ketones and Aldehydes (7:16)
    • Addition to Conjugated Ketones and Aldehydes (1 Question)
    • 18.7 The Wittig Reaction (6:16)
    • The Wittig Reaction (2 Questions)
    • Aldehydes and Ketones Quiz Extra Practice (12 Questions)
  • 44

    Chapter 19 - Carboxylic Acids and Acid Derivatives (Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution) (Previous Version--Being phased out)

    • 19.1 Nomenclature of Carboxylic Acids and Acid Derivatives (17:47)
    • Nomenclature of Carboxylic Acids and Derivatives Quiz (13 Questions)
    • 19.2 Synthesis of Carboxylic Acids (14:36)
    • 19.3 Nuceophilic Acyl Substitution and Trends in Reactivity (24:27)
    • 19.4 Mechanisms of Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution Reactions (26:04)
    • Reactions of Carboxylic Acids and Acid Derivatives Quiz (13 Questions)
    • 19.5 Gabriel and Baeyer-Villiger Syntheses (8:18)
    • Carboxylic Acids and Acid Derivatives Quiz Extra Practice (10 Questions)
  • 45

    Chapter 20 - Substitution Reactions at the Alpha Carbon (Previous Version--Being phased out)

    • 20.1 Acidity of the Alpha Carbon (15:24)
    • Acidity of the Alpha Carbon Quiz (3 Questions)
    • 20.2 Alpha Halogenation (12:41)
    • Alpha Halogenation Quiz (3 Questions)
    • 20.3 Alpha Alkylation and the Michael Reaction (15:53)
    • Alpha Alkylation Quiz (2 Questions)
    • 20.4 Aldol Condensation Reactions (15:55)
    • 20.5 Mechanisms of Aldol Condensation Reactions (15:13)
    • Aldol Condensations Quiz (4 Questions)
    • 20.6 The Robinson Annulation (7:48)
    • 20.7 Claisen Condensation Reactions (12:40)
    • Claisen Condensations Quiz (3 Questions)
    • 20.8 Beta Decarboxylation and the Malonic Ester and Acetoacetic Ester Syntheses (13:45)
    • Malonic Ester and Acetoacetic Ester Syntheses Quiz (4 Questions)
    • Alpha Substitution Reactions Quiz Extra Practice (10 Questions)
  • 46

    Chapter 21 - Amines (Previous Version--Being phased out)

    • 21.1 Nomenclature and Basicity of Amines (11:49)
    • Nomenclature of Amines (4 Questions)
    • 21.2 Synthesis of Amines (19:15)
    • 21.3 Reactions of Amines (24:19)
    • Reactions of Amines (6 Questions)
    • 21.4 Amino Acids (16:11)
    • Amines Quiz Extra Practice (5 Questions)
  • 47

    Chapter 22 - Carbon-Carbon Coupling Reactions (Less Common Organometallics) (Previous Version--Being phased out)

    • 22.1 Carbon-Carbon Coupling Reactions (10:34)
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